European Memories

of the Gulag

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Childhood in exile

 

These photographs were taken at the start of the deportation period, then after liberation. One early photograph, with Anna’s mother and grandmother, dates from before deportation.

Many details reveal the nature of life in exile, particularly on one photograph taken just after their arrival: the mother poses with her children, who are still wearing odd shoes, showing their extreme poverty. Anna recalls that her brothers went to school every other day in turn, because they only had one pair of shoes between them.